Textile Theory

Fiber_yarn_Fabric
The records of man’s use of Textiles dates back thousands of years before the birth of Christ.
Textiles were first developed as a means for carrying food and as mats. As the climate changed, man realized that he needs more to protect his body more than his own akin and hair. Only then they started looking around, went hunting, and used animal hides to protect their body.
Later the sharp bones of animals were used as needles and nerves were used as thread to stitch the hides. After settling down at one place, man learned how to spin bits of plants, reeds, animal hair, and bark into one continuous strand, or yarn. And this let to the evolution of one of the basic necessity of mankind i.e Clothing.
In this article, we’ll get introduced to how a cloth/fabric is formed.
There is a linear development in four stages: Fibre → Yarn → Fabric → Cloth.
let us look at each of its stages.

FIBER:

  • It is defined as a delicate, hair-like structure of the tissues of a plant or animal or other substances.
  • The diameter is very small to that of the length.  Its length is 100 times its diameter.

Fiber_yarn_Fabric

  • It should be spin-able to be made into a yarn or be made into a fabric by using different methods.
  • The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at enough flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient strength, elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, and luster.
  • Example: Cotton, silk, wool, polyester, viscose, etc
  • Exception: The Banana fiber is one kind of fiber but it is not a textile fiber. Because it doesn’t satisfy the above properties. hence, all the fibers are not textile fiber.

DID YOU KNOW:  India is the world’s largest producer of bananas.

  • IKEA is working together with social entrepreneurs around the world to promote sustainable products. Heres an insight into how banana fibers are extracted.

YARN:

  • When 2 or more fibres are interlocked, interlaced, or bonded it is called yarn.
  • It forms a long continuous strand of interlocked or twisted fibres which could be used for knitting, weaving, braiding, crocheting, embroidering, stitching, textiles, etc.
woman weaving cloth with spinning wheel, rajasthan, india Stock ...
A woman producing yarn using a spinning wheel(Charkha), Rajasthan, India
  • Yarn occurs in the following forms:

    1. A single filament with or without a twist –a monofilament.
    2. A number of fibers twisted(S or Z twist) together -spun yarn.
    3. A number of filaments laid together without a twist-a zero twist yarn.
Twisted Yarn
S And Z twisted yarn| Source: britannica

Fabric –

  • When yarn is knitted or weaved or knitted together, it becomes fabric.
  • Fabric is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial (synthetic) fibre.
knitting and weaving
Knitting and Weaving

Thus, fibre is the basic raw material for yarn – then yarn is the base for fabric – and when a fabric is finished for a specific purpose, it is called cloth

Cloth:

The fabric is then processed i.e  cut and/or sewn and is taken under different stages to form a the desired product i.e Cloth.

Plain Casual Wear Cotton Cloth, GSM: 50-100, Rs 60 /meter Reka ...
Finished cloths| Source: Indiamart

So there is a linear development: fibre → yarn → fabric → cloth.

 

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